Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior Key Terms
Solution~ A homogenous mixture
Solvent~ The medium in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.
Solute~The substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution.
Molarity~ The number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Molality~ The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Mass Percent~ The percentage of the mass of a compound represented by each of its continuant elements.
Mole Fraction~ The ratio of the number of moles in a mixture of substances.
PPM~ Parts Per Million-amount of grams per 1 million grams.
PPB~ Parts Per Billion-amount of grams per 1 billion grams.
Unsaturated~ A solution that does not have the maximum solute.
Saturated~ A stable solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved.
Supersaturated~ A solution that temporarily contains more than the saturated amount of solute.
Misability~ Capable of mixing or blending.
Immisability~ Incapable of mixing or blending
Lattice Energy~ The energy evolved when ions in the gas phase come together to form one mole of a solid crystal lattice.
Solvation Energy~ Energy required to dissolve a material.
Heat of solution~The amount of heat involved in the process of solution formation.
Henryís Law~ The concentration of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid.
LeChateliers Principle~ A change in any of the factors determining an equilibrium will cause the system to adjust to reduce or minimize the effect of the change.
Raoultís Law~ The vapor pressure of the solvent is proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent in the solution.
Colligative Property~ The properties of a solution that depend only on the number of solute particles per solvent molecule and not on the nature of the solute or solvent.
Vapor Pressure Lowering~ The pressure of the vapor of a substance in contact with its liquid or solid phase in a sealed container.
Elevation of Boiling Point~ The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure on the liquid.
Depression of Freezing Point~
Vanít Hoff Factor~ The ratio of the experimentally measured freezing point depression of a solution to the value calculated from the apparent molality.
Osmotic Pressure~ The pressure exerted by osmosis in a solution system at equilibrium.
Isotonic~ Of equal tension.
Colloid~ A state of matter intermediate between a solution and a suspension, in which solute particles are large enough to scatter light, but too small to settle out.
Colloidal Dispersion~ Particles disperse in the solution but do not actually dissolve.
Dispersing Phase~ When insoluble particles are in the state of falling out of a solution.
Dispersed Phase~ Is a suspension before the particles settle.
Tyndall Effect~ Light is dispersed shown through a colloid.
Hydrophic~ Antagonistic to, shedding, tending not to combine with, or incapable of dissolving in water.
Hydrophilic~ Having an affinity for, absorbing, wetting smoothly with, tending to combine with, or capable of dissolving in water.
Sol~ Dispersion of a solid in a liquid.
Gel~ Colloid that is immobile
Emulsion~ A suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with in which the first will not mix, such as milk fats in milk.
Aerosol~ A gaseous suspension of fine solid or liquids particles.
Foam~ A mass of gas bubbles in a liquid filled matrix, a light bubbly gas, and liquid mass formed by agitating a liquid containing certain soaps or detergents.
Surfactant~ A substance that changes the properties of a surface, typically in a colloidal suspension.