Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior Key Terms

Solution~ A homogenous mixture

Solvent~ The medium in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.

Solute~The substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution.

Molarity~ The number of moles of solute per liter of solution.

Molality~ The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Mass Percent~ The percentage of the mass of a compound represented by each of its continuant elements.

Mole Fraction~ The ratio of the number of moles in a mixture of substances.

PPM~ Parts Per Million-amount of grams per 1 million grams.

PPB~ Parts Per Billion-amount of grams per 1 billion grams.

Unsaturated~ A solution that does not have the maximum solute.

Saturated~ A stable solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved.

Supersaturated~ A solution that temporarily contains more than the saturated amount of solute.

Misability~ Capable of mixing or blending.

Immisability~ Incapable of mixing or blending

Lattice Energy~ The energy evolved when ions in the gas phase come together to form one mole of a solid crystal lattice.

Solvation Energy~ Energy required to dissolve a material.

Heat of solution~The amount of heat involved in the process of solution formation.

Henryís Law~ The concentration of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid.

LeChateliers Principle~ A change in any of the factors determining an equilibrium will cause the system to adjust to reduce or minimize the effect of the change.

Raoultís Law~ The vapor pressure of the solvent is proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent in the solution.

Colligative Property~ The properties of a solution that depend only on the number of solute particles per solvent molecule and not on the nature of the solute or solvent.

Vapor Pressure Lowering~ The pressure of the vapor of a substance in contact with its liquid or solid phase in a sealed container.

Elevation of Boiling Point~ The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure on the liquid.

Depression of Freezing Point~

Vanít Hoff Factor~ The ratio of the experimentally measured freezing point depression of a solution to the value calculated from the apparent molality.

Osmotic Pressure~ The pressure exerted by osmosis in a solution system at equilibrium.

Isotonic~ Of equal tension.

Colloid~ A state of matter intermediate between a solution and a suspension, in which solute particles are large enough to scatter light, but too small to settle out.

Colloidal Dispersion~ Particles disperse in the solution but do not actually dissolve.

Dispersing Phase~ When insoluble particles are in the state of falling out of a solution.

Dispersed Phase~ Is a suspension before the particles settle.

Tyndall Effect~ Light is dispersed shown through a colloid.

Hydrophic~ Antagonistic to, shedding, tending not to combine with, or incapable of dissolving in water.

Hydrophilic~ Having an affinity for, absorbing, wetting smoothly with, tending to combine with, or capable of dissolving in water.

Sol~ Dispersion of a solid in a liquid.

Gel~ Colloid that is immobile

Emulsion~ A suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with in which the first will not mix, such as milk fats in milk.

Aerosol~ A gaseous suspension of fine solid or liquids particles.

Foam~ A mass of gas bubbles in a liquid filled matrix, a light bubbly gas, and liquid mass formed by agitating a liquid containing certain soaps or detergents.

Surfactant~ A substance that changes the properties of a surface, typically in a colloidal suspension.