Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement Key Terms

Substance - a form of matter that cannot be separated into two different species by any physical technique, and that has a unique set of properties.

Element - matter that is composed of only one kind of atom.

Atom - the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.

Molecule - the smallest unit of a compound that retains the properties of that compound.

Ion - an atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons so that it is no longer electrically neutral.

Compound - matter that is composed of two or more kinds of atoms chemically combined in definite proportions.

molecular compound - a compound formed by the combination of atoms without significant ionic character.

ionic compound - a compound formed by the combination of positive and negative ions.

Formula - A symbolic representation of the composition or of the composition and structure of a compound.

Density - the ratio of the mass of an object to its volume.

Temperature - a physical property that determines the direction of heat flow in an object on contract with another object.

extensive property - a physical property that depends on the amount of matter present.

intensive property - a physical property that does not depend on the amount of matter present.

physical change - a change that involves only physical properties.

chemical reaction - a process in which one or more substances are changed into others

chemical equation - a written representation of a chemical reaction, showing the reactants and products, their physical states, and the direction in which the reaction proceeds.

states of matter - the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container)

Solid - the phase of matter in which a substance has both definite shape and definite volume.

Liquid - the phase of matter in which substance has no definite shape but a definite volume.

Gas - the phase of matter in which a substance has no definite shape and a volume defined only by size of its container.

kinetic molecular theory - a theory of the behavior of matter at the molecular level.

Mixture - a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its identity.

Heterogeneous - a mixture that is not uniform in composition.

Homogeneous - a mixture that is completely uniform in composition.

Solution - a homogeneous mixture.

SI - a uniform system of measurement units in which a single base unit is used for each measured physical quantity.

exponential notation - simplifies numbers by letting you get rid of zeros and it lets you move the decimal point in a number

dimensional analysis - a technique of problem-solving that uses the units that are part of a measurement to help solve the problem.

Precision - the agreement of repeated measurements of a quantity with one another.

average deviation - a measure of precision calculated as the average of the absolute values of the differences between the experimental results and the average result.

Accuracy - the agreement between the measured quantity and the accepted value.

percent error - the difference between the measured quantity and the accepted value, expressed as a percentage of the accepted value.

conversion factor - a multiplier that relates the desired unit to the starting unit.

significant figures - the digits in a measured quantity that are known exactly, plus one digit that is inexact to the extent of +/- 1

Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Key Terms

Subatomic Particle:  A collective term for protons, neutrons and electrons.

Nucleus:  the core of an atom made up of protons and neutrons.

Proton: a positive charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus.

Neutron:  an electrically neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus.

Electron:  a negatively charged subatomic particle found in the space about the nucleus.

Atomic Number:  the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element.

Mass Number:  The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of an element.

Isotope:  Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers, because of a difference in the number of neutrons.

Nuclide:  the nucleus of a particular isotope

Abundance:  The average amount of  one isotope in a sample of an element.

Atomic Mass:  The average mass of an atom in a natural sample of the element.

Mole:  an amount equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 g of the carbon-12 isotope. One mole contains 6.02214x1023 atoms, molecules, photons etc.

Avogadro's Number:  6.022 1367 x 1023 mol-1. Avogadro's constant times the number of moles of an atom, molecule, ion etc. gives the number of individual entities present.

Molar Mass:  The SI base unit for amount of substance.

Periodic Table:  an array-like arrangement of the elements based on atomic number which reflects the shell structure of atoms.

Periodicity:  the repeated trends in properties such as atomic radius, electronegativity, electron affinity and ionization energy observed as a function of increasing atomic number.

Group:  name given to a column of elements in the periodic table.

Period:  name given to a row of the periodic table .

Allotrope:  Different forms of the same element that exist in the same physical state under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.

Chapter 3 Molecules, Ions and Their Compounds Key Terms

empirical formula
molecular formula
condensed formula
structural formula
molecular compound
molecular models
ionic compound
monatomic ion
polyatomic ion
Coulombís Law
electrostatic force
crystal lattice
binary compound
molecular mass or weight
formula mass or weight
percent composition
mass spectrum
hydrated compound
anhydrous compound

Chapter 4 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry Key Terms

chemical equation- an expression representing a chemical reaction; the formulas of the reactants(on the left) are connected by an arrow with the formulas for the products.

conservation of matter- law that states that matter cannot be created or destroyed.

reactants- a starting substance in a chemical reaction

products- a substance formed in a chemical reaction.

coefficients- a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation

stoichiometry- portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships in chemical reactions; the calculation of quantities of substances involved in a chemical equation mole ratio

stoichiometric factor- a conversion factor relating moles of one species in a reaction to moles of another species in the same reaction.

limiting reactant- the reactant presents in limited supply that determines the amaount of product formed

actual yield- the amount of product that forms when a reaction is carried out in the laboratory.

theoretical yield- the amount of product that could form during a reaction calculated from a balanced chemical equation; it represents the maximum amount of product that could be formed from a given amount of reactant.

percent yield- the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield for a chemical reaction expressed as a percentage; a measure of the efficiency of a reaction

gravimetric analysis - examination of materials based on their relative densities

combustion analysis - examination of the byproducts CO2 and H2O of burning of a hydrocarbon

Chapter 5 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Key Terms

*solution- a homogeneous mixture

solvent- the medium in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution

solute- the substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution

aqueous solution- a solution in which the solvent is water

electrolyte-a substance that ionizes in water or on melting to form an electrically conducting solution

non-electrolyte- a substance that dissolves in water to form an electrically non-conducting solution

strong electrolyte- a substances that dissolves in water to form a good conductor of electricity

weak electrolyte- a substance that dissolves in water to form a poor conductor of electricity

*precipitation- an exchange reaction that produces an insoluble salt, or precipitate, from soluble reactants

detailed Ionic equation- a chemical equation involving all substances in a reaction; includes catalysts and spectator ions

net Ionic equation- a chemical equation involving only those substances undergoing chemical changes during the course of the reaction

spectator Ion-am ion that is present in a solution in which a reaction takes place, but that is not involved in the net process

strong add- an acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solution

weak add- an acid that is only partially ionized in aqueous solution

polyprotic acid- a Bronstead acid that can donate more than one proton

strong base- a base that ionizes completely in aqueous solution

weak base- a base that is only partially ionized in aqueous solution

acidic oxide- an oxide of a nonmetal that acts as an acid

basic oxide- an oxide of a metal that acts as a base

redox- reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction

*oxidation- the loss of electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule

reduction- the gain of electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule

oxidizing agent- the substance that accepts electrons and is reduced in an oxidation-reduction reaction

reducing agent- the substance that donates electrons and is oxidized in an oxidation-reduction reaction

concentration- the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution

molarity- the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

dilution- The process of making weaker or less concentrated

hydrogen Ion- The positively charged ion of hydrogen, H+, formed by removal of the electron from atomic hydrogen and found in all aqueous solutions of acids.

hydronium Ion-A hydrated hydrogen ion, H3O+.

*pH scale- ranges from 0 to 14, it determines the acidity or basicity of a solution.

titration- a procedure for quantitative analysis of a substance by an essentially complete reaction in solution with a measured quantity of a reagent of known concentration

equivalence point- a point in a titration at which one reactant has been exactly consumed by addition of the other reactant

indicator- a substance used to signal the equivalence point of a titration by a change in some physical property such as color

pH meter- device used to measure the acidity or basicity of a solution by using the pH scale

primary standard- a pure, solid acid or base that can be accurately weighed for preparation of a titrating reagent

Chapter 6 Energy and Chemical Reactions Key Terms

Thermodynamics- Science of heat energy flow in chemical reactions.

Energy- Capacity to do work and transfer heat.

Potential energy- Energy that results from an object's position.

Law of Conservation of Energy- Matter can neither be created nor destroyed.

First Law of Thermodynamics- Total energy of the universe is a constant.

System- Substance being evaluated for energy content in a thermodynamic process.

Surroundings- Everything outside the system in a thermodynamics process.

Thermal Equilibrium- Condition in which the system and its surroundings are the same temperature and heat transfer stops.

Exothermic- Thermodynamic process in which heat transfer flows from system to its surroundings.

Endothermic- Thermodynamic process in which heat transfer flows into system from surroundings.

Joule- SI unit of energy        1kg x m2 / s2

calorie- quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of 1.00 g of pure liquid from 14.5 degrees Celsius to 15.5 degrees Celsius.

kilocalorie- 1000 calories

dietary Calorie- Equivalent to a kilocalorie, represents the energy content of foods.

Specific heat capacity- The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1.00 g of substance by one degree Celsius.

Change of State- Change between a solid and liquid or a liquid and gas.

Heat of Fusion- Quantity of heat required to convert a solid to liquid at a constant temperature.

Heat of Vaporization- Quantity of heat required to convert 1 mol of a liquid to a gas at a constant temperature.

Sublimation- Direct conversion of a solid to a gas.

Internal energy- Sum of potential and kinetic energies of the particles in the system.

Pressure-Volume Work- How to determine the change in energy, measure heat transfer and  work done to or by the system.

State function- Quantity whose value is determined only by the state of the system.

Calorimetry- Experimental determination of the enthalpy changes of reactions.

Constant volume calorimeter- calorimeter in which the volume cannot change.

Constant pressure calorimeter- allows measurement of heats evolved or required under constant pressure conditions.

Hess's Law- If reaction is sum of 2 or more reactions, the [delta]H for overall process is the sum of the [delta]H for those reactions.

Energy level diagrams- Drawing in which various substances (reactions and products) are placed on a potential energy scale.

Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation- [delta]Hof , [delta]H of reaction for formation of 1 mol of a compound directly from its elements, all in their standard states.

Standard state- Most Stable form of an element or compound in the physical state in which it exists at one bar and the specified temperature.

Hydrogen Economy- Technology powered by energy from oxidation of H2.

Chapter 7 Atomic Structure Key Terms

Electromagnetic radiation - Radiation that consists of wave-like electric and magnetic fields in space, including light, microwaves, radio signals, and x-rays.
Frequency - The number of complete waves passing a point in a given amount of time.
Wavelength - The distance between successive crests (or troughs) in a wave.
Velocity - The rapidity or speed of motion; swiftness; the distance traveled per unit time.
Amplitude - The maximum height of a wave, as measured from the axis of propagation.
Node - A point of zero amplitude of a wave.
Stationary wave - A wave (as a sound wave in a chamber or an electromagnetic wave ina transmission line) in which the ration of its instantaneous amplitude at one point to that at any other point does not vary with time.
Visible spectrum - A light of colors ranging from red at the long-wavelength end of the light to violet at the short wavelength end.
Quantization - To limit the possible values of (a magnitude or quantity) to a discrete set of values by quantum mechanical rules.
Radiation from hot objects - The condition that it gives off from hot objects
Photoelectric effect - The ejection of electrons from a metal bombarded with light of at least a minimum frequency.
Photons - A "particle" of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and an energy given by Plank's law.
Line spectrum - The spectrum of light emitted by excited atoms in the gas phase, consisting of discrete wavelengths
Rydberg equation - An equation that was possible to calculate the wavelength of the red, green and blue lines in the visible emission spectrum of hydrogen atoms.
Ground state - The state of atom in which all electrons are in the lowest possible energy levels.
Excited state - the state of an atom in which at least one electron is not in the lowest possible energy level.
Quantum mechanic wave-particle duality - 2 way wave particle that deals with quantum mechanics.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle - It is impossible to determine both the position and the momentum of an electron in an atom simultaneously with great certainty.
Schrodinger's wave equation - A mathematical equation that is complex and difficult to solve except in simple cases.
Wave function - A set of equations that characterize the electron as a matter wave.
Atomic orbital - The matter wave for an allowed energy state of an electron in an atom.
Principal quantum number (n) - It can have any interger value from 1 to infinity.
Secondary quantum number - Another variable that may be used in the quantum number.
Magnetic quantum number - It is related to the orientation of the orbitals within a subshell.
Electron shell - A grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom; "the chemical properties of an atom are determined by the outermost electron shell".
Subshell - It is which electrons of a given shell can are grouped.
Nodal plane - A surface in which there is zero probability of finding an electron.

Chapter 8 Atomic Electron Configurations and Chemical Periodicity Key Terms

electron spin
4th quantum number
aufbau principle
Pauli exclusion principle
maximum multiplicity
effective nuclear charge
electronic configuration
n+l rule
ground state
core electrons
valence electrons
noble gas notation
periodic trend
atomic size
Ionization energy
electron affinity
lanthanide contraction

Chapter 9 Bonding and Molecular Structure: Fundamental Concepts Key Terms

Lewis electron dot symbol
octet of electrons
chemical bond
Ionic bond
*covalent bond
Ion pair
lattice energy
Lewis structure
bonding pair
nonbonding pair
single bond
double bond
triple bond
resonance hybrid
charge distribution
formal charge
polar covalent bond
electroneutrality principle
bond order
bond length
bond energy
VSEPR theory
electron pair arrangement
molecular shape
trigonal planar
trigonal blpyramid
dipole moment

Chapter 10 Bonding & Molecular Structure: Orbital Hybridization & Molecular Orbitals Key Terms

valence bond theory
molecular orbital theory
orbital overlap
sigma bond
pi bond
orbital hybridization
restricted rotation
cis-trans Isomerism
molecular orbital
bonding orbital
anti bonding
orbital delocalization
bond order
band theory
Fermi level
valence band
conduction band
band gap
Intrinsic semiconductor
doped semiconductor
extrinsic semiconductor
p-type semiconductor
n-type semiconductor

Chapter 11 Carbon: More than Just Another Element Key Terms

compositeIsomers- Two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms.
Structural isomers- Two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but with different atoms bonded to each other.
Stereoisomers- Two or more compounds with the same molecular formula and the same atom-to-atom bonding, but with different arrangements of the atoms in space.
Geometric isomers- Isomers in which the atoms of the molecule are arranged in different geometric relationships.
Optical isomerism- Isomers that are nonsuperimposale mirror images of each other.
Chiral- molecules and other objects that have nonsuperimposable mirror images
Enantiomers- Pairs of nonsuperimposable molecules
Hydrocarbons- Compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen only.
Alkane- Have the general formula C n H 2+2 , with n having integer values.
Saturated compound- Each C atom is attached to four other atoms, either C or H, and are alkanes.
Alkyl groups- Are derived from the name of the hydrocarbon.
Cycloakane- Are constructed with tetrahedral carbon atoms joined together to form a ring.
Strained hydrocarbon- Named because an unfavorable geometry is imposed around carbon.( Much less than 109.5 degrees
Alkene- A class of hydrocarbons in which each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms.
Alkyne- A class of hydrocarbon in which there is at least one carbon-carbon triple bond.
Unsaturated compound- A hydrocarbon containing double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Addition reaction- Molecules with the general formula X-Y ( such as hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, and water) add cross the carbon0carbon double bond.
Hydrogenation- An addition reaction in which the reagent is molecular hydrogen.
Aromatic compound- Any of a class of hydrocarbons characterized by the presence of a benzene ring or related structure.
Ortho- substituent groups on adjacent carbons in the benzene ring.
Meta, and Para- substituent groups on carbons on opposite sides of the ring.
Resonance stabilization- The extent of resonance stabilization in benzene is evaluated by comparing the energy evolved in the hydrogenation of benzene to form cyclohexane.
Functional group- An atom or group of atoms attached to a carbon atom in the hydrocarbon.
Alcohol- Any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl group bonded to a saturated carbon atom.
Ether- Any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of an oxygen atom singly bonded to two carbon atoms
Amine- A derivative of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups.
Carbonyl group- The functional group that characterizes aldehydes and ketones. Consisting of a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom.
Carbonyl compound-
Aldehyde- Any class of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group, in which the carbon atom is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom.
Ketone- Any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group, in which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbon atoms.
Carboxylic acid- Any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carboxyl groups.
Ester- Any of a class of organic compounds structurally related to carboxylic acids, but in which the hydrocarbon group.
Esterification- Carboxylic acids react with alcohols in the presence of a strong acid to form esters.
Hydrolysis- A reaction that is the reverse of the formation of the ester.( a reaction with water.
Amide- An organic compound derived from a carboxylic acid and an amine.
Polymer- A large molecule composed of many smaller repeating units, usually arranged in a chain.
Monomer- The small units from which a polymer is constructed.
Thermoplastic- Soften and flow when they are heated and harden when they are cooled.
Thermosetting plastics- Are initially soft but set to a solid when heated and cannot be resoftened.
Addition polymer- a synthetic organic polymer formed by directly joining monomer units.
Condensation polymer- A synthetic organic polymer formed by combining monomer untis in such a way that a small molecule, usually water, is split out.
Elastomers- A synthetic organic polymer with very high elasticity.
Copolymer- Are formed by polymerization of two or more different monomers.
Condensation reaction- A chemical reaction in which two molecules react by splitting out, or eliminating, a small molecule.
Polyester- A condensation polymer formed by elimination of water between two types of monomers, one with two carboxylic acid groups and the other with two alcohol groups
Polyamide- A condensation polymer formed by elimination of water between two types of monomers, one with two carboxylic acid groups and the other with two amine group.
Reinforced plastic- Contains fibers in a polymer matrix.

Chapter 12 Gases and Their Properties Key Terms

Chapter 12 AP Chem Vocabulary

millimeters of mercury(mmHg) - a common unit of pressure defined as the pressure that can support a 1 millimeter column of mercury; 760 mmHg=1 atm;   1 mmHg=1 torr

standard atmosphere(atm) - a unit of pressure; 1 atm=760 mmHg

pascal(Pa) - the SI unit of pressure; 1 Pa=1 N/m2

bar - a unit of pressure; 1  bar=100 kPa

compressibility - the change in volume with the change in pressure

Boyle's law - the volume of a fixed amount of gas at a given temperature in inversely proportional to the pressure exerted by the gas

Charles's law - if a given quantity of gas is held at a constant pressure, its volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature

combined gas law(general gas law) - an equation derived from the ideal gas law that allows calculation of pressure, temperature, and volume when a given amount of gas undergoes a change in conditions

Avogrado's hypothesis - equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure have equal numbers of molecules

gas constant(R) - the proportionality constant in the ideal gas law, 0.082057 L*atm/mol*K or 8.314510 J/mol*K

ideal gas law - a law that relates pressure, volume, number of moles, and temperatures for an ideal gas

standard temperature and pressure(STP) - a temperature of exactly 0ļC and a pressure of exactly 1 atm

standard molar volume - the volume occupied by I mol of gas at standard temperature and pressure

partial pressure - the pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases

Dalton's law of partial pressures - the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of the components of a mixture

mole fraction - the ratio of the number of moles of one substance to the total number of moles in a mixture of substances

root mean square speed(rms speed) - the square root of the average of the squares of the speeds of the molecules in a sample

diffusion - the gradual mixing of the molecules of two or more substances by random molecular motion

effusion - the movement of gas molecules through a membrane or other porous barrier by random molecular motion

Graham's law - derived from Maxwell's equation by recognizing that the rate of effusion depends on the speed of the molecules

van der Waal's equation - a mathematical expression that describes the behavior of non-ideal gases

Chapter 13 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Key Terms

intermolecular forces- interactions between molecules, between ions, or between molecules and ions
van der Waals forces- describes the behavior of nonideal gases
ion-dipole attraction- the electrostatic force between a molecule with a permanent dipole moment and a charged ion
dipole-dipole attraction- the electrostatic force between two neutral molecules that have permanent dipole moments
dipole-induced dipole attraction- the electrostatic force between two neutral molecules, one having a permanent dipole and the other having an induced dipole
induced dipole-induced dipole attraction- the electrostatic force between two neutral molecules, both having induced dipoles
London dispersion forces- the intermolecular force of attraction in liquids and solids compsed of nonpolar molecules
polarizability- the extent to which the electron cloud of an atom or molecule can be distorted by an external electric charge
hydrogen bond- attraction between a hydrogen atom and a very electronegative atom to produce an unusually strong dipole-dipole attraction
*evaporation- a state change from liquid to gas
enthalpy of vaporization- the internal energy of a vapor plus the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure exerted on it by its surroundings
dynamic equilibrium- a liquid will only evaporate to the extent that its surroundings may handle (ex. a closed container)
vapor pressure- the pressure exerted when a liquid-vapor equilibrium has been established
volatility- the tendency of a molcule to leave the liquid phase and move to the gaseous state
vapor pressure curve- the points on a chart that represent conditions of pressure and conditions of pressure at which liquid and vapor are in equilibrium
Clausius-Clapeyron equation- lnP = -(deltaHvap/RT)+C
critical temperature- the pressure at the critical point; above this temperature the vapor cannot be liquefied at any pressure
critical point- the upper end of the curve of vapor pressure versus vapor temperature
supercritical fluid- a substance at or above the critical temperature and pressure
surface tension- the energy required to disrupt the surface of a liquid
capillary action- the product of adhesion and cohesion working together with a liquid in a closed container, such as a galss or test tube; leads to a meniscus
adhesive and cohesive forces- a force of attraction between molecules of different substances (adhesive) or like substances (cohesive)
viscosity- the resistance of liquid to flow
lattice points- the corners of a unit cell in a crystal lattice
crystal lattice- a solid, regular array of positive and negative ions
unit cell- the smallest repeating unit in a crystal lattice
crystal system- a=b=c; alpha=beta=gamma=90 degrees
simple cubic lattice- a crystalline unit cell that contains just the eight basic corners of a cubic lattice
body-centered cubic lattice- a crystalline structure that has, in addition to a simple cubic lattice, an additional particle in the center (or the body) of the structure
face-centered cubic lattice- a lattice with like molecules in the corners and on the faces of all six sides of the lattice
network solid- a solid composed of a network of covalently bonded atoms
amorphous material- A solid the lacks long-rang regular strucure, and displays melting range instead of a specific melting point
sublimation- the direct state change from solid to gas
phase diagram- a graph showing which phases of a substance exist at various temperatures and pressures
triple point- the temperature and pressure at which the solid, liquid, and vapor phases of a substance are in equilibrium

Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior Key Terms

*solution - a homogeneous mixture
solvent - the medium in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
solute - the substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution
molarity - the number of moles of solute per liter if solution
molality - the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
mass percent - percent composition, the percentage of the mass of a compound represented by each of its constituent elements
mole fraction - the number of moles of one substance to the total number of moles in a mixture of substances
ppm - parts per million
ppb - parts per billion
unsaturated - the amount of concentration is less than the saturation amount
saturated - a stable solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved
supersaturated - a solution that temporarily contains more than the saturation amount of solute
misability - two liquids that mix to an appreciable extent to form a solution
immisability - liquids that are unable to mix to form a solution
lattice energy - the energy evolved when ions in the gas phase come together to form one mole of a solid crystal lattice
solvation energy - the energy required for a solvent to combine with a solute to form a solution
heat of solution - enthalpy of solutions, the amount of heat involved in the process of solution formation
Henry's law - the concentration of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
Le Chateliers principle - a change in any factors determining an equilibrium will cause the system to adjust to reduce or minimize the effect of the change
Raoult's law - the vapor pressure of the solvent is proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent in a solution
colligative property - the properties of a solution that depend only on the number of solute particles per solvent molecules and not on the nature of the solute or solvent
vapor pressure lowering - the pressure of the vapor of a substance in contact with its solid or liquid phase in a sealed container
van't Hoff factor - the ratio of the experimentally measured freezing point depression of a solution to the value calculated from the apparent molality
osmotic pressure - the pressure exerted by osmosis in a solution system at equilibrium
Isotonic - with equal osmotic pressure
colloid - a state of matter intermediate between a solution and a suspension, in which solute particles are large enough to scatter light but too small to settle out
colloidal dispersion - a state of matter intermediate between a solution and a suspension, in which solute particles are large enough to scatter light but too small to settle out
Tyndall effect - the particles of a colloid scatter visible light when dispersed in a solvent
hydrophobic - colloids with water as the dispersing medium
hydrophilic - only weak attractive forces exist between the water and the surface of the colloidal particles - dispersion of a solid substance in a fluid medium
gel - a dispersion that has a structure that prevents it from being mobile
emulsion - colloidal dispersions of one liquid in another
aerosol - a gas that id dispersed as either a solid or liquid
foam - a solid or liquid that is dispersed as a gas
surfactant - a substance that changes the properties of a surface, especially in a colloidal suspension

Chapter 15 Chemical Kinetics Key Terms

chemical kinetics- the study of the rates of chemical reactions under various conditions and of reaction mechanisms

reaction mechanism- the sequence of events at the molecular level that control the speed and outcome of a reaction
rate of a chemical reaction- refers to the change in concentration of a substance per unit of time
average rate- the sum of a set of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the set
instantaneous rate- determined by drawing a line tangent to the concentration-time curve at a particular time and obtaining the rate from the slope of this line
rate equation- the mathematical relationship between reactant concentration and reaction rate (also known as rate law)
rate constant- the proportionally constant in the rate equation
order- with the respect to a particular reactant is the exponent of its concentration term in the rate expression, and the total reaction order is the sum of the exponential concentration terms
over all order-

initial rate- the instantaneous reaction rate at the start of the reaction (the rate at t = 0)
integrated rate equation- a useful equation whose relationship for a first-order reaction can be transformed by using the methods of calculus because integral calculus is used in its derivation
half life- t 1/2- the time required for the concentration of a reactant to decrease to one-half its initial value
collision theory- a theory of reaction rates that assumes that molecules must collide in order to react
activation energy- the minimum amount of energy that must be absorbed by a system to cause it to react
Arrhenius equation- a mathematical expression that relates rate to the activation energy, collision frequency, and molecular orientation
reaction intermediate- a species that is produced in one step of a reaction mechanism and completely consumed in a later step
homogeneous catalyst- a catalyst that is in the same phase as the reaction mixture
heterogeneous catalyst - a catalyst that is not in the same phase as the reaction mixture

elementary step- a simple event in which some chemical transformation occurs; one of a sequence of events that form the reaction mechanism
molecularity- the number of particles colliding in an elementary step
unimolecular- a reaction in which one molecule is the only reactant in an elementary step
bimolecular- a reaction that involves two molecules, which may be identical or different in an elementary step
trimolecular- elementary step which involves three molecules
rate-determining step- the slowest elementary step of a reaction mechanism
intermediate- does not appear in the equation describing the overall reaction; usually have a very fleeting existence, but occasionally have long enough lifetimes to be observed

steady state approximation-

Chapter 16 Chemical Equilibria Key Terms

Equilibrium - state in which both the forward and reverse reactions continue to occur at equal rates but no net change is observed.
Reaction Quotient - Product of concentrations of products divided by the product of concentrations of reactants, each raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient in the chemical equation.
Equilibrium Constant - The constant in the equilibrium constant expression.
Equilibrium Constant Expression - Mathematical expression that relates the concentrations of the reactants and products at equilibrium at a particular temperature to a numerical constant.
Product - Favored Reaction - System in which, when a reaction appears to be over, products predominate over reactants.
Reactant - Favored Reaction - System in which, when a reaction appears to be over, reactants predominate over products.
ICE Box - Way of representing in table form changes in concentration of a chemical reaction.
LeChatelier's Principle - A change in any of the factors determining equilibrium will cause the system to adjust to reduce or minimize the effect of the change.

Chapter 17 Chemistry of Acids and Bases Key Terms

Bronsted-Lowry acid
Bronsted-Lowry base
conjugate acid-base pair
auto Ionization
water ionization constant Kw
Ka and Kb
pKa and pKb
Lewis add
Lewis base
add-base adduct
coordination compound
inductive effect

Chapter 18 Other Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria Key Terms

suppression of Ionization
buffer capacity
acid-base titration
equivalence point
volumetric analysis
saturated solution
Common ion effect-The limiting of the ionization of an acid 9or base0 by the presence of a significant concentration of its conjugate base (or acid)

Buffer-Causes solutions to be resistant to a change pH on addition of a strong acid or base

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation-shows that the pH of the solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base is controlled primarily by the strength of the acid

Titrant-The substance being added during the titration

Acid-base indicator-Usually an organic compound that is itself a weak acid or weak base and the anthocyanin dyes of flowers are typical

Solubility product constant-The equilibrium constant the reflects the solubility of a compound

Formation constant-The equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex ion


Chapter 19 Entropy and Free Energy Key Terms

Spontaneous - to describe changes: a change that occurs without outside intervention.

Entropy, S, - a measure of the disorder of a system.

Second law of thermodynamics- the total entropy of the universe is continually increasing.

Third law of thermodynamics- the entropy of a pure, perfectly formed crystal at 0K is zero.

Reversible Process- A process that in which a system can go from one state to another and return to the first state along the same path without altering the surroundings.

Standard entropy, S, - the entropy of a substance in its most stable for mat 1 bar.

Standard free energy formation of formation- the free energy change for the formation of 1 mol of a compound from its elements, all in their standard states 

Gibbs free energy, G- a thermodynamic state of function relating enthalpy, temperature, and entropy.

Chapter 20 Electron Transfer Reactions Key Terms

redox reaction-another name for an oxidation-reduction reaction.
oxidation-A process that involves complete or partial loss of electrons or a gain of oxygen; it results in an increase in the oxidation number of an atom.
reduction-The gain of electrons by a molecule or ion.
cell-One of the minute elementary structures, of which the greater part of the various tissues and organs of animals and plants are composed.
voltaic cell-an electrochemical cell used to convert chemical energy into electrical energy; the energy is produced by a spontaneous redox reaction
galvanic cell-Device that use chemical reactions to produce an electric current
electrolysis-A process in which electrical energy is used to bring about a chemical change; the electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen
half reaction-An equation showing either the reduction or the oxidation of a species in an oxidation-reduction reaction
salt bridge-A tube containing a conducting solution used to connect half-cells in a voltaic cell; it allows the passage of ions from 1 compartment to another but prevents solution from mixing completely.
anode-An electrode at which oxidation occurs
cathode-An electrode at which reduction occurs.
primary cell-use redox reactions that cannot be returned to their original state by recharging, battery is dead when used up and must be discarded.
secondary cell-reactions can be reversed, the battery can be recharged.
battery-A device consisting of two or more electrochemical cells
storage battery-rechargable, also called secondary cell
dry cell-often called because there is no visible liquid phase, inexpensive such as a flashlight battery.
alkaline cell-batterys that generate current up to 50% more than a standard dry cell battery.
mercury cell-typically used in calculators, cameras, watches, heart pacemakers, ect.  Also Alkaline cells.
lead storage battery-best known rechargeable battery.
nickel cadmium battery-used in a variety of cordless appliances, lightweight and rechargeable
fuel cell-electrochemical cells in which the reactants (fuel and oxidant) are supplied continuously from an external reservoir.
coulomb-the quantity of charge that passes a point in an electric circuit when a current of one ampere flows for 1 second. (1 coulomb = 1 amp * 1 sec)
faraday-The proportionality constant that relates standard free energy of reaction to standard potential; the charge carried by one nole of electrons
electromotive force(emf)-difference in potential energy per electrical charge
emf-Electromotive Force
cell potential-measured under reactants and products present as pure liquids or solids, solutes in aqueous solution have concentration of 1.0 M, and Gaseous reactants or products have a pressure of 1.0 atm.  Also called standard potential.
standard hydrogen electrode SHE-half cells connected together(?)
standard half cell-A compartment of an electrochemical cell in which a half reaction occurs.
reduction potential-Relative oxidizing and reducing ability of various chemical species.
Nernst equation-A mathematical expression that relates the potential of an electrochemical cell to the concentrations of the cell reactants or products.
ion selective electrodes-Collectively, electrodes used to measure ion concentrations.
overpotential-too much potential(?)

Chapter 21 The Chemistry of the Main Group Elements Key Terms

*Periodic table
element abundance
metallic character
Haber process
alkali metals
alkaline earth metals
Hall-Heroult process
nitrogen and phosphorus
Ostwald process
oxygen and sulfur
Frasch process

Chapter 22 The Chemistry of the Transition Elements Key Terms

d-block elements        Characterized by filling the d orbitals
f-block elements        Characterized by filling the f orbitals
Lanthanide contraction    The decrease in size that results from the filling of the 4F orbitals
Ore    The relatively few minerals from which elements can be obtained profitably
Metallurgy    The general name given to the process of obtaining metals from their ores
Gangue    A mixture of sand and clay in which a desired mineral is usually found
Pyrometallurgy    Recovery of metals from their ores by high-temperature
Hydrometallurgy    Recovery of metals from their ores by reactions in aqueous solution
Coordination Complex    A metal ion and either water or ammonia molecules compose a single structure unit
Complex Ions    A metal ion and either water or ammonia molecules compose a single structure unit
Coordination Compound    A compound in which a metal ion or atom is bonded to one or more molecules or anions to define a structural unit
Ligand    The molecules or anions bonded to the central metal atom in a coordination compound
Coordination Number    The number of ligands attached to the central metal ion in a coordination compound
Coordination Geometry    The geometry described by the attached ligands
Monodentate    Ligands which coordinate to the metal via a single Lewis base atom
Polydentate    Ligands that attach to the metal with more than one donor atom
Chelating Ligand    A ligand that forms more than one coordinate covalent bond with the central metal in a complex
Coordination Isomerism    Two or more complexes in which a coordinated ligand and a non-coordinated ligand are exchanged
Linkage Isomers    Two or more complexes in which a ligand is attached to the metal atom through different atoms
Crystal Field Model    Focuses on repulsion of electrons in the metal coordination sphere
Crystal Field Splitting    The difference in potential energy between sets of d orbitals in a metal atom or ion surrounded by ligands
High-Spin Complex    It has the maximum number of unpaired electrons
Low-Spin Complex    It has the minimum number of unpaired electrons possible
Pairing Energy    The additional potential energy due to the electrostatic repulsion between two electrons in the same orbital
d-to-d Transition    As an electron moves between two orbitals having different energies in a complex
Spectrochemical Series    An ordering of ligands by the magnitudes of the splitting energies that they cause.   

Chapter 23 Nuclear Chemistry Key Terms

alpha radiation
beta radiation
gamma radiation
decay series
electron capture
positron emission
band of stability
nuclear binding energy
mass defect
nuclear fission
chain reaction
nuclear fusion